In recent years, there has been an increasing interest to understand and construct structural-functional brain maps using diffusion sensitized imaging and BOLD fMRI in neuromodulation. These neuroimaging biomarkers can help to establish an understanding of neurological basis for monitoring symptoms while implementing longitudinal management of disease progress in people with neurological disorders (epilepsy, tumor, Parkinson and so on) for routine care, rehabilitation, or in experimental therapeutic treatments. This will lead surgeons to individualize treatments for these patients. This session will examine the use of advanced neuroimaging techniques such as BOLD fMRI, DTI and tractography in conjugation with neuromodulation to better understand the therapeutic mechanism of brain stimulation. The ultimate aim of this session is to better understand how impaired functional and structural subnetworks contribute to neurological and psychiatric symptoms, and use this information to stratify optimum targeted therapies using noninvasive brain stimulation techniques.