Outcomes and Access to Neuromodulation for Women and Underrepresented Minorities: A Call to Action Featured

7:00 PM - 8:00 PM CST Friday, January 15

Throughout neuromodulation, neurosurgical, and chronic pain literature, it has been demonstrated that access to, and outcomes after, neuromodulation-based procedures are significantly different for women and minorities. Factors contributing to these phenomena may implicit bias, cultural differences, and lack of representation of women and minorities in neuromodulation related specialties, medical societies, and academic leadership. This session will summarize the disparities in neuromodulation access and outcomes for women and minority groups. It will examine the current state of women and underrepresented minorities in neuromodulation and neuromodulation related fields, including medical societies. Importantly, it will describe potential solutions to improve access and outcomes.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this educational activity, participants should be able to:

  • Discuss the literature demonstrating disparities in access and outcomes in neuromodulation in women and minority groups.
  • Examine how cultural differences and implicit bias affect care in neuromodulation related fields.
  • Formulate potential solutions, including the use of outreach, mentorship, and research to eliminate disparities in neuromodulation care.


Jonathan H. Goree, MD

Disparities in Neuromodulation Access and Outcomes: What Are the Facts?

Myrdalis Diaz-Ramirez, MD

Challenges to Access of Deep Brain Stimulation for Women and Minorities

David Charles, MD

How Do Bias and Cultural Differences Affect the Patient Experience?

Johnathan H. Goree, MD

How Should We Use Outreach to Improve Access?

Stephanie g. Vanterpool, MD MBA

How Mentorship Can Improve Representation

Susan M. Moeschler, MD

How Research Can Find the Solution

Charles A. Odonkor, MD

Faculty and Presentations subject to change.